Publications and Documentation

Warp code and model publications:

An overview of Warp can be found on the web page for the BLAST group at LBNL, It is divided into two parts, the first overviewing the code and the second showing several applications.



A. Friedman, R. H. Cohen, D. P. Grote, S. M. Lund, W. M. Sharp, J.-L. Vay, I. Haber, and R. A. Kishek, "Computational Methods in the Warp Code Framework for Kinetic Simulations of Particle Beams and Plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. vol. 42, no. 5, p. 1321 (May 2014); (Please use this as the reference to Warp in any publications.)

J.-L. Vay, D. P. Grote, R. H. Cohen, A. Friedman, "Novel Methods in the Particle-In-Cell Accelerator Code-Framework Warp," 2012 Comput. Sci. Disc. 5 014019;

J. L. Vay, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Cormier-Michel, D. P. Grote, "Numerical methods for instability mitigation in the modeling of laser wakefield accelerators in a lorentz-boosted frame", J. Comput. Phys. 230 (15) (2011) 5908–5929;

S. M. Lund, T. Kakuchi, and R. C. Davidson, "Generation of initial kinetic distributions for simulation of long-pulse charged particle beams with high space-charge intensity," Phys. Rev. Special Topics -- Accelerators and Beams 12, 114801 (2009);

J. L. Vay, "Noninvariance of Space- and Time-Scale Ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the Implications for the Study of Relativistic Interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 130405 (2007);

S. M. Lund, S. H. Chilton, and E. P. Lee, "Efficient computation of matched envelope solutions of the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij envelope equations for periodic focusing lattices," Phys. Rev. Special Topics -- Accelerators and Beams 9, 064201 (2006);

J.-L. Vay, P. Colella, J. Kwan, P. McCorquodale, D. Serafini, A. Friedman, D. Grote, G. Westenskow, J.-C. Adam, A. Heron, I. Haber, "Application of adaptive mesh refinement to particle-in-cell simulations of plasmas and beams", Phys. Plasmas 11 (5) (2004) 2928–2934;

David P. Grote, Alex Friedman, Jean‐Luc Vay, and Irving Haber, "The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams," AIP Conf. Proc. 749, pp. 55-58, ELECTRON CYCLOTRON RESONANCE ION SOURCES: 16th International Workshop on ECR Ion Sources ECRIS'04. 2004;

Alex Friedman, David P. Grote, and Irving Haber, "Three‐dimensional particle simulation of heavy‐ion fusion beams," Phys. Fluids B 4, 2203 (1992);

Warp applications, selected publications:

A. Narimannezhad, C. J. Baker, M. H. Weber, J. Jennings, K. G. Lynn, Simulation studies of the behavior of positrons in a microtrap with long aspect ratio, The European Physical Journal D, 6 (11) (2014).

R. A. Kishek, Ping-pong modes: A new form of multipactor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 035003.

J. Vay, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Cormier-Michel, D. P. Grote, "Effects of hyperbolic rotation in minkowski space on the modeling of plasma accelerators in a lorentz boosted frame", Phys. Plasmas 18 (3) (2011) 030701;

J. L. Vay, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, W. P. Leemans, E. Cormier-Michel, D. P. Grote, "Modeling of 10 GeV-1 TeV laser-plasma accelerators using Lorentz boosted simulations", Phys. Plasmas 18, 123103 (2011).

Alex Friedman, et. al., "Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II, a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator," Phys. Plasmas 17, 056704 (2010);

D Winklehner, D Todd, J Benitez, M Strohmeier, D Grote and D Leitner, "Comparison of extraction and beam transport simulations with emittance measurements from the ECR ion source venus," 2010 JINST 5 P12001;

K. Gomberoff, J. Fajans, A. Friedman, D. Grote, J.-L. Vay, and J. S. Wurtele, “Simulations of plasma confinement in an antihydrogen trap,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 102111 (2007).

K. Gomberoff, J. Fajans, J. Wurtele, A. Friedman, D. P. Grote, R. H. Cohen, and J.-L. Vay, “Simulation studies of non-neutral plasma equilibria in an electrostatic trap with a magnetic mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 052107 (2007)

David P. Grote, Enrique Henestroza and Joe W. Kwan, "Design and simulation of a multibeamlet injector for a high current accelerator," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 014202 (2003);

Original Warp manual:

The original Warp manual is superseeded by this online Warp manual but contains much useful information that has not yet been added to the online manual.

Courses related to Warp:

Background material on the numerical simulation of space-charge dominated beams can be found in a series of lecture notes by S.M. Lund, J.-L. Vay, and R. Lehe on Self-Consistent Simulation of Beam and Plasma Systems. The course covers numerical methods employed within Warp in the context of self-consistent modeling of intense beams and plasmas, and Warp is prominently used in examples. So the course serves, in part, as an introduction to using Warp. This graduate-level course should be offered at the US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) approximately every two years. After the initial version (2016, 1.5 semester hours), the course will be a three semester hour equivalent course given over two weeks (intensive school format), and can be taken for university credit.

Background material on the physics of space-charge dominated beams can be found in an extensive set of course lecture notes by S.M. Lund and J.J. Barnard on Beam Physics with Intense Space Charge. This graduate-level course has been taught as part of the US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) since 2001. The lecture notes are useful for background on the physics models in Warp and properties of intense beams. The course is being offered in the USPAS approximately every 2 years, is a three semester hour equivalent course given over two weeks (intensive school format), and can be taken for university credit.

Books on PIC simulation methods applied in Warp:

C.K. Birdsall and A.B. Langdon, Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation, McGraw-Hill Book Company (1985).

R.W. Hockney and J.W. Eastwood, Computer Simulation using Particles, Institute of Physics Publishing (1988).